如何在 Java 中读取/转换InputStream为字符串?

如果有一个 java.io.InputStream 对象,应该如何处理该对象并生成一个 String


假设我有一个包含文本数据的 InputStream,我想将其转换为 String,例如我可以将其写入日志文件.

获取 InputStream 并将其转换为 String 的最简单方法是什么?

public String convertStreamToString(InputStream is) {
    // ???
}

Use:

InputStream in = /* Your InputStream */;
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in));
String read;

while ((read=br.readLine()) != null) {
//System.out.println(read);
sb.append(read);
}

br.close();
return sb.toString();

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If you are using Google-Collections/Guava you could do the following:

InputStream stream = ...
String content = CharStreams.toString(new InputStreamReader(stream, Charsets.UTF_8));
Closeables.closeQuietly(stream);

Note that the second parameter (i.e. Charsets.UTF_8) for the InputStreamReader isn't necessary, but it is generally a good idea to specify the encoding if you know it (which you should!)

For completeness here is Java 9 solution:

public static String toString(InputStream input) throws IOException {
    return new String(input.readAllBytes(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
}

This uses the readAllBytes method which was added to Java 9.

This is the best pure Java solution that fits perfectly for Android and any other JVM.

This solution works amazingly well... it is simple, fast, and works on small and large streams just the same!! (see benchmark above.. No. 8)

public String readFullyAsString(InputStream inputStream, String encoding)
        throws IOException {
    return readFully(inputStream).toString(encoding);
}

public byte[] readFullyAsBytes(InputStream inputStream)
throws IOException {
return readFully(inputStream).toByteArray();
}

private ByteArrayOutputStream readFully(InputStream inputStream)
throws IOException {
ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
int length = 0;
while ((length = inputStream.read(buffer)) != -1) {
baos.write(buffer, 0, length);
}
return baos;
}

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Here's the most elegant, pure-Java (no library) solution I came up with after some experimentation:

public static String fromStream(InputStream in) throws IOException
{
    BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in));
    StringBuilder out = new StringBuilder();
    String newLine = System.getProperty("line.separator");
    String line;
    while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
        out.append(line);
        out.append(newLine);
    }
    return out.toString();
}
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I'd use some Java 8 tricks.

public static String streamToString(final InputStream inputStream) throws Exception {
    // buffering optional
    try
    (
        final BufferedReader br
           = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream))
    ) {
        // parallel optional
        return br.lines().parallel().collect(Collectors.joining("\n"));
    } catch (final IOException e) {
        throw new RuntimeException(e);
        // whatever.
    }
}

Essentially the same as some other answers except more succinct.

I ran some timing tests because time matters, always.

I attempted to get the response into a String 3 different ways. (shown below)
I left out try/catch blocks for the sake readability.

To give context, this is the preceding code for all 3 approaches:

   String response;
   String url = "www.blah.com/path?key=value";
   GetMethod method = new GetMethod(url);
   int status = client.executeMethod(method);

1)

 response = method.getResponseBodyAsString();

2)

InputStream resp = method.getResponseBodyAsStream();
InputStreamReader is=new InputStreamReader(resp);
BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(is);
String read = null;
StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
while((read = br.readLine()) != null) {
    sb.append(read);
}
response = sb.toString();

3)

InputStream iStream  = method.getResponseBodyAsStream();
StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
IOUtils.copy(iStream, writer, "UTF-8");
response = writer.toString();

So, after running 500 tests on each approach with the same request/response data, here are the numbers. Once again, these are my findings and your findings may not be exactly the same, but I wrote this to give some indication to others of the efficiency differences of these approaches.

Ranks:
Approach #1
Approach #3 - 2.6% slower than #1
Approach #2 - 4.3% slower than #1

Any of these approaches is an appropriate solution for grabbing a response and creating a String from it.

Pure Java solution using Streams, works since Java 8.

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

// …
public static String inputStreamToString(InputStream is) throws IOException {
try (BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(is))) {
return br.lines().collect(Collectors.joining(System.lineSeparator()));
}
}

As mentioned by Christoffer Hammarström below other answer it is safer to explicitly specify the Charset. I.e. The InputStreamReader constructor can be changes as follows:

new InputStreamReader(is, Charset.forName("UTF-8"))
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If you can't use Commons IO (FileUtils/IOUtils/CopyUtils), here's an example using a BufferedReader to read the file line by line:

public class StringFromFile {
    public static void main(String[] args) /*throws UnsupportedEncodingException*/ {
        InputStream is = StringFromFile.class.getResourceAsStream("file.txt");
        BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(is/*, "UTF-8"*/));
        final int CHARS_PER_PAGE = 5000; //counting spaces
        StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder(CHARS_PER_PAGE);
        try {
            for(String line=br.readLine(); line!=null; line=br.readLine()) {
                builder.append(line);
                builder.append('\n');
            }
        } 
        catch (IOException ignore) { }
    String text = builder.toString();
    System.out.println(text);
}

}

Or if you want raw speed I'd propose a variation on what Paul de Vrieze suggested (which avoids using a StringWriter (which uses a StringBuffer internally):

public class StringFromFileFast {
    public static void main(String[] args) /*throws UnsupportedEncodingException*/ {
        InputStream is = StringFromFileFast.class.getResourceAsStream("file.txt");
        InputStreamReader input = new InputStreamReader(is/*, "UTF-8"*/);
        final int CHARS_PER_PAGE = 5000; //counting spaces
        final char[] buffer = new char[CHARS_PER_PAGE];
        StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder(CHARS_PER_PAGE);
        try {
            for(int read = input.read(buffer, 0, buffer.length);
                    read != -1;
                    read = input.read(buffer, 0, buffer.length)) {
                output.append(buffer, 0, read);
            }
        } catch (IOException ignore) { }
    String text = output.toString();
    System.out.println(text);
}

}

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