Python中如何通过引用传递变量?

Python 文档似乎不清楚参数是通过引用传递还是通过值传递,以下代码生成了未更改的值 'Original'

class PassByReference:
    def __init__(self):
        self.variable = 'Original'
        self.change(self.variable)
        print(self.variable)
def change(self, var):
    var = 'Changed'

我可以通过实际引用传递变量吗?

I found the other answers rather long and complicated, so I created this simple diagram to explain the way Python treats variables and parameters.

It is neither pass-by-value or pass-by-reference - it is call-by-object. See this, by Fredrik Lundh:

http://effbot.org/zone/call-by-object.htm

Here is a significant quote:

"...variables [names] are not objects; they cannot be denoted by other variables or referred to by objects."

In your example, when the Change method is called--a namespace is created for it; and var becomes a name, within that namespace, for the string object 'Original'. That object then has a name in two namespaces. Next, var = 'Changed' binds var to a new string object, and thus the method's namespace forgets about 'Original'. Finally, that namespace is forgotten, and the string 'Changed' along with it.

Think of stuff being passed by assignment instead of by reference/by value. That way, it is always clear, what is happening as long as you understand what happens during the normal assignment.

So, when passing a list to a function/method, the list is assigned to the parameter name. Appending to the list will result in the list being modified. Reassigning the list inside the function will not change the original list, since:

a = [1, 2, 3]
b = a
b.append(4)
b = ['a', 'b']
print a, b      # prints [1, 2, 3, 4] ['a', 'b']

Since immutable types cannot be modified, they seem like being passed by value - passing an int into a function means assigning the int to the function's parameter. You can only ever reassign that, but it won't change the original variables value.

Effbot (aka Fredrik Lundh) has described Python's variable passing style as call-by-object: http://effbot.org/zone/call-by-object.htm

Objects are allocated on the heap and pointers to them can be passed around anywhere.

  • When you make an assignment such as x = 1000, a dictionary entry is created that maps the string "x" in the current namespace to a pointer to the integer object containing one thousand.

  • When you update "x" with x = 2000, a new integer object is created and the dictionary is updated to point at the new object. The old one thousand object is unchanged (and may or may not be alive depending on whether anything else refers to the object).

  • When you do a new assignment such as y = x, a new dictionary entry "y" is created that points to the same object as the entry for "x".

  • Objects like strings and integers are immutable. This simply means that there are no methods that can change the object after it has been created. For example, once the integer object one-thousand is created, it will never change. Math is done by creating new integer objects.

  • Objects like lists are mutable. This means that the contents of the object can be changed by anything pointing to the object. For example, x = []; y = x; x.append(10); print y will print [10]. The empty list was created. Both "x" and "y" point to the same list. The append method mutates (updates) the list object (like adding a record to a database) and the result is visible to both "x" and "y" (just as a database update would be visible to every connection to that database).

Hope that clarifies the issue for you.

A simple trick I normally use is to just wrap it in a list:

def Change(self, var):
    var[0] = 'Changed'

variable = [‘Original’]
self.Change(variable)
print variable[0]

(Yeah I know this can be inconvenient, but sometimes it is simple enough to do this.)

Here is the simple (I hope) explanation of the concept pass by object used in Python.
Whenever you pass an object to the function, the object itself is passed (object in Python is actually what you'd call a value in other programming languages) not the reference to this object. In other words, when you call:

def change_me(list):
   list = [1, 2, 3]

my_list = [0, 1]
change_me(my_list)

The actual object - [0, 1] (which would be called a value in other programming languages) is being passed. So in fact the function change_me will try to do something like:

[0, 1] = [1, 2, 3]

which obviously will not change the object passed to the function. If the function looked like this:

def change_me(list):
   list.append(2)

Then the call would result in:

[0, 1].append(2)

which obviously will change the object. This answer explains it well.