如何从 Git 存储库中删除一个文件?

我已将名为 "file1.txt" 的文件添加到 Git 存储库。 之后,我提交了它,添加了几个名为 dir1dir2 的目录,并将它们提交到 Git 存储库。

现在当前存储库有 "file1.txt"dir1dir2。 如何删除 "file1.txt" 而不影响其他人,例如 dir1dir2

Note: if you want to delete file only from git use below:

git rm --cached file1.txt

If you want to delete also from hard disk:

git rm file1.txt

If you want to remove a folder(the folder may contain few files) so, you should remove using recursive command, as below:

git rm -r foldername

If you want to remove a folder inside another folder

git rm -r parentFolder/childFolder

Then, you can commit and push as usual. However, if you want to recover deleted folder, you can follow this: recover deleted files from git is possible.

From doc:

git rm [-f | --force] [-n] [-r] [--cached] [--ignore-unmatch] [--quiet] [--] <file>…​

OPTIONS

<file>…​

Files to remove. Fileglobs (e.g. *.c) can be given to remove all matching files. If you want Git to expand file glob characters, you

may need to shell-escape them. A leading directory name (e.g. dir to remove dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be given to remove all files in the directory, and recursively all sub-directories, but this requires the -r option to be explicitly given. -f --force

Override the up-to-date check.

-n --dry-run

Don’t actually remove any file(s). Instead, just show if they exist in the index and would otherwise be removed by the command.

-r

Allow recursive removal when a leading directory name is given.

--

This option can be used to separate command-line options from the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for

command-line options). --cached

Use this option to unstage and remove paths only from the index. Working tree files, whether modified or not, will be left alone.

--ignore-unmatch

Exit with a zero status even if no files matched.

-q --quiet

git rm normally outputs one line (in the form of an rm command) for each file removed. This option suppresses that output.

Read more on official doc.

The answer by Greg Hewgill, that was edited by Johannchopin helped me, as I did not care about removing the file from the history completely. In my case, it was a directory, so the only change I did was using:

git rm -r --cached myDirectoryName

instead of "git rm --cached file1.txt" ..followed by:

git commit -m "deleted myDirectoryName from git"
git push origin branch_name

Thanks Greg Hewgill and Johannchopin!

According to the documentation.

git rm --cached file1.txt

When it comes to sensitive data—better not say that you removed the file but rather just include it in the last known commit:

0. Amend last commit

git commit --amend -CHEAD

If you want to delete the file from all git history, according to the documentation you should do the following:

1. Remove it from your local history

git filter-branch --force --index-filter \ "git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch PATH-TO-YOUR-FILE-WITH-SENSITIVE-DATA" \  --prune-empty --tag-name-filter cat -- --all
# Replace PATH-TO-YOUR-FILE-WITH-SENSITIVE-DATA with the path to the file you want to remove, not just its filename
  1. Don't forget to include this file in .gitignore (If it's a file you never want to share (such as passwords...):
echo "YOUR-FILE-WITH-SENSITIVE-DATA" >> .gitignore
git add .gitignore
git commit -m "Add YOUR-FILE-WITH-SENSITIVE-DATA to .gitignore"

3. If you need to remove from the remote

git push origin --force --all

4. If you also need to remove it from tag releases:

git push origin --force --tags
  1. First,Remove files from local repository.

    git rm -r File-Name

    or, remove files only from local repository but from filesystem

    git rm --cached File-Name

  2. Secondly, Commit changes into local repository.

    git commit -m "unwanted files or some inline comments"   
    
  3. Finally, update/push local changes into remote repository.

    git push 
    

For the case where git rm doesn't suffice and the file needs to be removed from history: As the git filter-branch manual page now itself suggests using git-filter-repo, and I had to do this today, here's an example using that tool. It uses the example repo https://example/eguser/eg.git

  1. Clone the repository into a new directory git clone https://example/eguser/eg.git

  2. Keep everything except the unwanted file. git-filter-repo --path file1.txt --invert-paths

  3. Add the remote repository origin back : git remote add origin https://example/eguser/eg.git. The git-filter-repo tool removes remote remote info by design and suggests a new remote repo (see point 4). This makes sense for big shared repos but might be overkill for getting rid a single newly added file as in this example.

  4. When happy with the contents of local, replace remote with it.

    git push --force -u origin master. Forcing is required due to the changed history.

Also note the useful --dry-run option and a good discussion in the linked manual on team and project dynamics before charging in and changing repository history.