Git如何显示已经staged的更改?

我上演了一些要提交的更改; 如何查看为下一次提交暂存的所有文件的差异? 我知道 git status,但我想看看实际的差异 - 不仅仅是暂存文件的名称。

我看到 git-diff(1) 手册页说

git diff [--options] [--] […]

此表单用于查看您相对于索引所做的更改(下一次提交的暂存区)。 换句话说,区别在于您可以告诉 git 进一步添加到索引中,但您仍然没有。 您可以使用 git-add(1) 暂存这些更改。

不幸的是,我不能完全理解这一点。 一定有一些方便的单线,我可以为其创建别名,对吗?

A simple graphic makes this clearer:

git diff

Shows the changes between the working directory and the index. This shows what has been changed, but is not staged for a commit.

git diff --cached

Shows the changes between the index and the HEAD (which is the last commit on this branch). This shows what has been added to the index and staged for a commit.

git diff HEAD

Shows all the changes between the working directory and HEAD (which includes changes in the index). This shows all the changes since the last commit, whether or not they have been staged for commit or not.

Also:

There is a bit more detail on 365Git.

Note that git status -v also shows the staged changes! (meaning you need to have staged -- git add -- some changes. No staged changes, no diff with git status -v.
It does that since Git 1.2.0, February 2006)

In its long form (default), git status has an undocumented "verbose" option which actually display the diff between HEAD and index.

And it is about to become even more complete: see "Show both staged & working tree in git diff?" (git 2.3.4+, Q2 2015):

git status -v -v
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For Staging Area vs Repository(last commit) comparison use

$ git diff --staged

The command compares your staged($ git add fileName) changes to your last commit. If you want to see what you’ve staged that will go into your next commit, you can use git diff --staged. This command compares your staged changes to your last commit.

For Working vs Staging comparison use

$ git diff 

The command compares what is in your working directory with what is in your staging area. It’s important to note that git diff by itself doesn’t show all changes made since your last commit — only changes that are still unstaged. If you’ve staged all of your changes($ git add fileName), git diff will give you no output.

Also, if you stage a file($ git add fileName) and then edit it, you can use git diff to see the changes in the file that are staged and the changes that are unstaged.

You can use this command.

git diff --cached --name-only

The --cached option of git diff means to get staged files, and the --name-only option means to get only names of the files.

USING A VISUAL DIFF TOOL

The Default Answer (at the command line)

The top answers here correctly show how to view the cached/staged changes in the Index:

$ git diff --cached

or $ git diff --staged which is an alias.



Launching the Visual Diff Tool Instead

The default answer will spit out the diff changes at the git bash (i.e. on the command line or in the console). For those who prefer a visual representation of the staged file differences, there is a script available within git which launches a visual diff tool for each file viewed rather than showing them on the command line, called difftool:

$ git difftool --staged

This will do the same this as git diff --staged, except any time the diff tool is run (i.e. every time a file is processed by diff), it will launch the default visual diff tool (in my environment, this is kdiff3).

After the tool launches, the git diff script will pause until your visual diff tool is closed. Therefore, you will need to close each file in order to see the next one.



You Can Always Use difftool in place of diff in git commands

For all your visual diff needs, git difftool will work in place of any git diff command, including all options.

For example, to have the visual diff tool launch without asking whether to do it for each file, add the -y option (I think usually you'll want this!!):

$ git difftool -y --staged

In this case it will pull up each file in the visual diff tool, one at a time, bringing up the next one after the tool is closed.

Or to look at the diff of a particular file that is staged in the Index:

$ git difftool -y --staged <<relative path/filename>>

For all the options, see the man page:

$ git difftool --help


Setting up Visual Git Tool

To use a visual git tool other than the default, use the -t <tool> option:

$ git difftool -t <tool> <<other args>>

Or, see the difftool man page for how to configure git to use a different default visual diff tool.



Example .gitconfig entries for vscode as diff/merge tool

Part of setting up a difftool involves changing the .gitconfig file, either through git commands that change it behind the scenes, or editing it directly.

You can find your .gitconfig in your home directory,such as ~ in Unix or normally c:\users\<username> on Windows).

Or, you can open the user .gitconfig in your default Git editor with git config -e --global.

Here are example entries in my global user .gitconfig for VS Code as both diff tool and merge tool:

[diff]
    tool = vscode
    guitool = vscode
[merge]
    tool = vscode
    guitool = vscode
[mergetool]
    prompt = true
[difftool "vscode"]
    cmd = code --wait --diff \"$LOCAL\" \"$REMOTE\"
    path = c:/apps/vscode/code.exe
[mergetool "vscode"]
    cmd = code --wait \"$MERGED\"
    path = c:/apps/vscode/code.exe

From version 1.7 and later it should be:

git diff --staged
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The --cached didn't work for me, ... where, inspired by git log

git diff origin/<branch>..<branch> did.