为 JavaScript 函数设置默认参数值

我希望 JavaScript 函数具有可选参数,我将其设置为默认值,如果未定义值,则使用该参数(如果传递了值,则忽略)。 在 Ruby 中,您可以这样做:

def read_file(file, delete_after = false)
  # code
end

这在 JavaScript 中有效吗?

function read_file(file, delete_after = false) {
  // Code
}

In ECMAScript 6 you will actually be able to write exactly what you have:

function read_file(file, delete_after = false) {
  // Code
}

This will set delete_after to false if it s not present or undefined. You can use ES6 features like this one today with transpilers such as Babel.

See the MDN article for more information.

Default Parameter Values

With ES6, you can do perhaps one of the most common idioms in JavaScript relates to setting a default value for a function parameter. The way we’ve done this for years should look quite familiar:

function foo(x,y) {
 x = x || 11;
 y = y || 31;
 console.log( x + y );
}
foo(); // 42
foo( 5, 6 ); // 11
foo( 5 ); // 36
foo( null, 6 ); // 17

This pattern is most used, but is dangerous when we pass values like

foo(0, 42)
foo( 0, 42 ); // 53 <-- Oops, not 42

Why? Because the 0 is falsy, and so the x || 11 results in 11, not the directly passed in 0. To fix this gotcha, some people will instead write the check more verbosely like this:

function foo(x,y) {
 x = (x !== undefined) ? x : 11;
 y = (y !== undefined) ? y : 31;
 console.log( x + y );
}
foo( 0, 42 ); // 42
foo( undefined, 6 ); // 17

we can now examine a nice helpful syntax added as of ES6 to streamline the assignment of default values to missing arguments:

function foo(x = 11, y = 31) {
 console.log( x + y );
}

foo(); // 42
foo( 5, 6 ); // 11
foo( 0, 42 ); // 42
foo( 5 ); // 36
foo( 5, undefined ); // 36 <– undefined is missing
foo( 5, null ); // 5 <– null coerces to 0
foo( undefined, 6 ); // 17 <– undefined is missing
foo( null, 6 ); // 6 <– null coerces to 0

x = 11 in a function declaration is more like x !== undefined ? x : 11 than the much more common idiom x || 11

Default Value Expressions

Function default values can be more than just simple values like 31; they can be any valid expression, even a function call:

function bar(val) {
 console.log( "bar called!" );
 return y + val;
}
function foo(x = y + 3, z = bar( x )) {
 console.log( x, z );
}
var y = 5;
foo(); // "bar called"
 // 8 13
foo( 10 ); // "bar called"
 // 10 15
y = 6;
foo( undefined, 10 ); // 9 10

As you can see, the default value expressions are lazily evaluated, meaning they’re only run if and when they’re needed — that is, when a parameter’s argument is omitted or is undefined.

A default value expression can even be an inline function expression call — commonly referred to as an Immediately Invoked Function Expression (IIFE):

function foo( x =
 (function(v){ return v + 11; })( 31 )
) {
 console.log( x );
}
foo(); // 42
</div>

that solution is work for me in js:

function read_file(file, delete_after) {
    delete_after = delete_after || false;
    // Code
}
</div>

To anyone interested in having there code work in Microsoft Edge, do not use defaults in function parameters.

function read_file(file, delete_after = false) {
    #code
}

In that example Edge will throw an error "Expecting ')'"

To get around this use

function read_file(file, delete_after) {
  if(delete_after == undefined)
  {
    delete_after = false;
  }
  #code
}

As of Aug 08 2016 this is still an issue

As per the syntax

function [name]([param1[ = defaultValue1 ][, ..., paramN[ = defaultValueN ]]]) {
   statements
}

you can define the default value of formal parameters. and also check undefined value by using typeof function.

ES6: As already mentioned in most answers, in ES6, you can simply initialise a parameter along with a value.


ES5: Most of the given answers aren't good enough for me because there are occasions where I may have to pass falsey values such as 0, null and undefined to a function. To determine if a parameter is undefined because that's the value I passed instead of undefined due to not have been defined at all I do this:

function foo (param1, param2) {
   param1 = arguments.length >= 1 ? param1 : "default1";
   param2 = arguments.length >= 2 ? param2 : "default2";
}
</div>