如何确定 Python 变量的类型?

如何查看变量的类型是无符号 32 位、有符号 16 位等?

如何查看?

Use the type() builtin function:

>>> i = 123
>>> type(i)
<type 'int'>
>>> type(i) is int
True
>>> i = 123.456
>>> type(i)
<type 'float'>
>>> type(i) is float
True

To check if a variable is of a given type, use isinstance:

>>> i = 123
>>> isinstance(i, int)
True
>>> isinstance(i, (float, str, set, dict))
False

Note that Python doesn't have the same types as C/C++, which appears to be your question.

How to determine the variable type in Python?

So if you have a variable, for example:

one = 1

You want to know its type?

There are right ways and wrong ways to do just about everything in Python. Here's the right way:

Use type

>>> type(one)
<type 'int'>

You can use the __name__ attribute to get the name of the object. (This is one of the few special attributes that you need to use the __dunder__ name to get to - there's not even a method for it in the inspect module.)

>>> type(one).__name__
'int'

Don't use __class__

In Python, names that start with underscores are semantically not a part of the public API, and it's a best practice for users to avoid using them. (Except when absolutely necessary.)

Since type gives us the class of the object, we should avoid getting this directly. :

>>> one.__class__

This is usually the first idea people have when accessing the type of an object in a method - they're already looking for attributes, so type seems weird. For example:

class Foo(object):
    def foo(self):
        self.__class__

Don't. Instead, do type(self):

class Foo(object):
    def foo(self):
        type(self)

Implementation details of ints and floats

How do I see the type of a variable whether it is unsigned 32 bit, signed 16 bit, etc.?

In Python, these specifics are implementation details. So, in general, we don't usually worry about this in Python. However, to sate your curiosity...

In Python 2, int is usually a signed integer equal to the implementation's word width (limited by the system). It's usually implemented as a long in C. When integers get bigger than this, we usually convert them to Python longs (with unlimited precision, not to be confused with C longs).

For example, in a 32 bit Python 2, we can deduce that int is a signed 32 bit integer:

>>> import sys

>>> format(sys.maxint, ‘032b’)
‘01111111111111111111111111111111’
>>> format(-sys.maxint - 1, ‘032b’) # minimum value, see docs.
‘-10000000000000000000000000000000’

In Python 3, the old int goes away, and we just use (Python's) long as int, which has unlimited precision.

We can also get some information about Python's floats, which are usually implemented as a double in C:

>>> sys.float_info
sys.floatinfo(max=1.7976931348623157e+308, max_exp=1024, max_10_exp=308, 
min=2.2250738585072014e-308, min_exp=-1021, min_10_exp=-307, dig=15, 
mant_dig=53, epsilon=2.2204460492503131e-16, radix=2, rounds=1)

Conclusion

Don't use __class__, a semantically nonpublic API, to get the type of a variable. Use type instead.

And don't worry too much about the implementation details of Python. I've not had to deal with issues around this myself. You probably won't either, and if you really do, you should know enough not to be looking to this answer for what to do.

One more way using __class__:

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4]
>>> a.__class__
<type 'list'>
>>> b = {'key1': 'val1'}
>>> b.__class__
<type 'dict'>
>>> c = 12
>>> c.__class__
<type 'int'>
</div>

Examples of simple type checking in Python:

assert type(variable_name) == int

assert type(variable_name) == bool

assert type(variable_name) == list

</div>

Python doesn't have such types as you describe. There are two types used to represent integral values: int, which corresponds to platform's int type in C, and long, which is an arbitrary precision integer (i.e. it grows as needed and doesn't have an upper limit). ints are silently converted to long if an expression produces result which cannot be stored in int.

It really depends on what level you mean. In Python 2.x, there are two integer types, int (constrained to sys.maxint) and long (unlimited precision), for historical reasons. In Python code, this shouldn't make a bit of difference because the interpreter automatically converts to long when a number is too large. If you want to know about the actual data types used in the underlying interpreter, that's implementation dependent. (CPython's are located in Objects/intobject.c and Objects/longobject.c.) To find out about the systems types look at cdleary answer for using the struct module.

You should use the type() function. Like so:

my_variable = 5

print(type(my_variable)) # Would print out <class ‘int’>

This function will view the type of any variable, whether it's a list or a class. Check this website for more information: https://www.w3schools.com/python/ref_func_type.asp

Just do not do it. Asking for something's type is wrong in itself. Instead use polymorphism. Find or if necessary define by yourself the method that does what you want for any possible type of input and just call it without asking about anything. If you need to work with built-in types or types defined by a third-party library, you can always inherit from them and use your own derivatives instead. Or you can wrap them inside your own class. This is the object-oriented way to resolve such problems.

If you insist on checking exact type and placing some dirty ifs here and there, you can use __class__ property or type function to do it, but soon you will find yourself updating all these ifs with additional cases every two or three commits. Doing it the OO way prevents that and lets you only define a new class for a new type of input instead.