JavaScript 检查变量是否存在(已定义/初始化)

哪种检查变量是否已初始化的方法更好/正确? (假设变量可以保存任何东西(字符串、整数、对象、函数等))

if (elem) { // or !elem

或者

if (typeof elem !== 'undefined') {

或者

if (elem != null) {

The typeof operator will check if the variable is really undefined.

if (typeof variable === 'undefined') {
    // variable is undefined
}

The typeof operator, unlike the other operators, doesn't throw a ReferenceError exception when used with an undeclared variable.

However, do note that typeof null will return "object". We have to be careful to avoid the mistake of initializing a variable to null. To be safe, this is what we could use instead:

if (typeof variable === 'undefined' || variable === null) {
    // variable is undefined or null
}

For more info on using strict comparison === instead of simple equality ==, see:
Which equals operator (== vs ===) should be used in JavaScript comparisons?

In JavaScript, a variable can be defined, but hold the value undefined, so the most common answer is not technically correct, and instead performs the following:

if (typeof v === "undefined") {
   // no variable "v" is defined in the current scope
   // *or* some variable v exists and has been assigned the value undefined
} else {
   // some variable (global or local) "v" is defined in the current scope
   // *and* it contains a value other than undefined
}

That may suffice for your purposes. The following test has simpler semantics, which makes it easier to precisely describe your code's behavior and understand it yourself (if you care about such things):

if ("v" in window) {
   // global variable v is defined
} else {
   // global variable v is not defined
}

This, of course, assumes you are running in a browser (where window is a name for the global object). But if you're mucking around with globals like this you're probably in a browser. Subjectively, using 'name' in window is stylistically consistent with using window.name to refer to globals. Accessing globals as properties of window rather than as variables allows you to minimize the number of undeclared variables you reference in your code (for the benefit of linting), and avoids the possibility of your global being shadowed by a local variable. Also, if globals make your skin crawl you might feel more comfortable touching them only with this relatively long stick.

In the majority of cases you would use:

elem != null

Unlike a simple if (elem), it allows 0, false, NaN and '', but rejects null or undefined, making it a good, general test for the presence of an argument, or property of an object.


The other checks are not incorrect either, they just have different uses:

  • if (elem): can be used if elem is guaranteed to be an object, or if false, 0, etc. are considered "default" values (hence equivalent to undefined or null).

  • typeof elem == 'undefined' can be used in cases where a specified null has a distinct meaning to an uninitialised variable or property.

    • This is the only check that won't throw an error if elem is not declared (i.e. no var statement, not a property of window, or not a function argument). This is, in my opinion, rather dangerous as it allows typos to slip by unnoticed. To avoid this, see the below method.

Also useful is a strict comparison against undefined:

if (elem === undefined) ...

However, because the global undefined can be overridden with another value, it is best to declare the variable undefined in the current scope before using it:

var undefined; // really undefined
if (elem === undefined) ...

Or:

(function (undefined) {
    if (elem === undefined) ...
})();

A secondary advantage of this method is that JS minifiers can reduce the undefined variable to a single character, saving you a few bytes every time.

There is another short hand way to check this, when you perform simple assignments and related checks. Simply use Conditional (Ternary) Operator.

var values = typeof variable !== 'undefined' ? variable : '';

Also this will be helpful, when you try to declare the Global variable with instance assignment of the reference variable.

If you wanted to check variable shouldn't be undefined or null. Then perform below check.

When the variable is declared, and if you want to check the value, this is even Simple: and it would perform undefined and null checks together.

var values = variable ? variable : '';
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Try-catch

If variable was not defined at all (for instance: external library which define global variable is not yet loaded - e.g. google maps), you can check this without break code execution using try-catch block as follows (you don't need to use strict mode)

try{
  notDefinedVariable;
} catch(e) {
  console.log('detected: variable not exists');
}

console.log(‘but the code is still executed’);

notDefinedVariable; // without try-catch wrapper code stops here

console.log(‘code execution stops. You will NOT see this message on console’);

BONUS: (referring to other answers) Why === is more clear than == (source)

if( a == b )

if( a === b )

if (typeof console != "undefined") {    
   ...
}

Or better

if ((typeof console == "object") && (typeof console.profile == "function")) {    
   console.profile(f.constructor);    
}

Works in all browsers

To contribute to the debate, if I know the variable should be a string or an object I always prefer if (!variable), so checking if its falsy. This can bring to more clean code so that, for example:

if (typeof data !== "undefined" && typeof data.url === "undefined") {
    var message = 'Error receiving response';
    if (typeof data.error !== "undefined") {
        message = data.error;
    } else if (typeof data.message !== "undefined") {
        message = data.message;
    }
    alert(message); 
}

..could be reduced to:

if (data && !data.url) {
  var message = data.error || data.message || 'Error receiving response';
  alert(message)
} 
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It is difficult to distinguish between undefined and null. Null is a value you can assign to a variable when you want to indicate that the variable has no particular value. Undefined is a special value which will be the default value of unassigned variables.


var _undefined;
var _null = null;

alert(_undefined);
alert(_null);
alert(_undefined == _null);
alert(_undefined === _null);

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To check if a variable has been declared/set I did this dirty trick.

I haven't found a way to extract the code to a function, even with eval.

"use strict";

// var someVar;

var declared;
try {
someVar;
declared = true;
} catch(e) {
declared = false;
}

if (declared) {
console.log("someVar is declared; now has the value: " + someVar);
} else {
console.log(“someVar is not declared”);
}

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