如何删除所有已合并的 Git 分支?

我有很多 Git 分支。 如何删除已经合并的分支? 有没有一种简单的方法可以把它们全部删除而不是一个一个地删除它们?

You'll want to exclude the master, main & develop branches from those commands.

Local git clear:

git branch --merged | grep -v '\*\|master\|main\|develop' | xargs -n 1 git branch -d

Remote git clear:

git branch -r --merged | grep -v '\*\|master\|main\|develop' | sed 's/origin\///' | xargs -n 1 git push --delete origin

Sync local registry of remote branches:

git fetch -p

I've used Adam's answer for years now. That said, that there are some cases where it wasn't behaving as I expected:

  1. branches that contained the word "master" were ignored, e.g. "notmaster" or "masterful", rather than only the master branch
  2. branches that contained the word "dev" were ignored, e.g. "dev-test", rather than only the dev branch
  3. deleting branches that are reachable from the HEAD of the current branch (that is, not necessarily master)
  4. in detached HEAD state, deleting every branch reachable from the current commit

1 & 2 were straightforward to address, with just a change to the regex. 3 depends on the context of what you want (i.e. only delete branches that haven't been merged into master or against your current branch). 4 has the potential to be disastrous (although recoverable with git reflog), if you unintentionally ran this in detached HEAD state.

Finally, I wanted this to all be in a one-liner that didn't require a separate (Bash|Ruby|Python) script.

TL;DR

Create a git alias "sweep" that accepts an optional -f flag:

git config --global alias.sweep '!git branch --merged $([[ $1 != "-f" ]] \
&& git rev-parse master) | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)" \
| xargs git branch -d'

and invoke it with:

git sweep

or:

git sweep -f

The long, detailed answer

It was easiest for me to create an example git repo with some branches and commits to test the correct behavior:

Create a new git repo with a single commit

mkdir sweep-test && cd sweep-test && git init
echo "hello" > hello
git add . && git commit -am "initial commit"

Create some new branches

git branch foo && git branch bar && git branch develop && git branch notmaster && git branch masterful
git branch --list
  bar
  develop
  foo
* master
  masterful
  notmaster

Desired behavior: select all merged branches except: master, develop or current

The original regex misses the branches "masterful" and "notmaster" :

git checkout foo
git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|master|dev)"
  bar

With the updated regex (which now excludes "develop" rather than "dev"):

git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)"
bar
masterful
notmaster

Switch to branch foo, make a new commit, then checkout a new branch, foobar, based on foo:

echo "foo" > foo
git add . && git commit -am "foo"
git checkout -b foobar
echo "foobar" > foobar
git add . && git commit -am "foobar"

My current branch is foobar, and if I re-run the above command to list the branches I want to delete, the branch "foo" is included even though it hasn't been merged into master:

git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)"
  bar
  foo
  masterful
  notmaster

However, if I run the same command on master, the branch "foo" is not included:

git checkout master && git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)"
  bar
  masterful
  notmaster

And this is simply because git branch --merged defaults to the HEAD of the current branch if not otherwise specified. At least for my workflow, I don't want to delete local branches unless they've been merged to master, so I prefer the following variant using git rev-parse:

git checkout foobar
git branch --merged $(git rev-parse master) | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)"
  bar
  masterful
  notmaster

Detached HEAD state

Relying on the default behavior of git branch --merged has even more significant consequences in detached HEAD state:

git checkout foobar
git checkout HEAD~0
git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)"
  bar
  foo
  foobar
  masterful
  notmaster

This would have deleted the branch I was just on, "foobar" along with "foo", which is almost certainly not the desired outcome. With our revised command, however:

git branch --merged $(git rev-parse master) | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)"
  bar
  masterful
  notmaster

One line, including the actual delete

git branch --merged $(git rev-parse master) | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)" | xargs git branch -d

All wrapped up into a git alias "sweep":

git config --global alias.sweep '!git branch --merged $([[ $1 != "-f" ]] \
&& git rev-parse master) | egrep -v "(^\*|^\s*(master|develop)$)" \
| xargs git branch -d'

The alias accepts an optional -f flag. The default behavior is to only delete branches that have been merged into master, but the -f flag will delete branches that have been merged into the current branch.

git sweep
Deleted branch bar (was 9a56952).
Deleted branch masterful (was 9a56952).
Deleted branch notmaster (was 9a56952).
git sweep -f
Deleted branch foo (was 2cea1ab).

Git Sweep does a great job of this.

Using Git version 2.5.0:

git branch -d `git branch --merged`
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If you're on Windows you can use Windows Powershell or Powershell 7 with Out-GridView to have a nice list of branches and select with mouse which one you want to delete:

git branch --format "%(refname:short)" --merged  | Out-GridView -PassThru | % { git branch -d $_ }

after clicking OK Powershell will pass this branches names to git branch -d command and delete them

You can add the commit to the --merged option. This way you can make sure only to remove branches which are merged into i.e. the origin/master

Following command will remove merged branches from your origin.

git branch -r --merged origin/master | grep -v "^.*master" | sed s:origin/:: |xargs -n 1 git push origin --delete 

You can test which branches will be removed replacing the git push origin --delete with echo

git branch -r --merged origin/master | grep -v "^.*master" | sed s:origin/:: |xargs -n 1 echo
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kuboon's answer missed deleting branches which have the word master in the branch name. The following improves on his answer:

git branch -r --merged | grep -v "origin/master$" | sed 's/\s*origin\///' | xargs -n 1 git push --delete origin

Of course, it does not delete the "master" branch itself :)

I use this:

git branch --delete $(git branch --format '%(refname:short)' --merged | grep --invert-match 'main\|master\|branch-to-skip')

It lists all merged branched in the specified format, then it feeds that list to git branch --delete.